Good Teaching is about Adaptive Expertise
Developing adaptive expertise in teaching requires:
- Opportunities to develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge
- Opportunities to practice eliciting, understanding, and responding to student thinking
- Opportunities to work with student thinking, around content, in increasingly complex contexts.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Pedagogy for learning to teach:
1) See a teaching practice
2) Break it down
3) Try it out
Framework for Learning Professional Practice (Grossman, et. al., 1999)
This framework consists of:
1) Representations of practice. These include videos of authentic teaching selected to highlight the particular practices under consideration. As well as live model lessons conducted by expert practitioners.
2) Decompositions of practice. These explanations draw teachers attention to key components of the complex teaching practices, providing a language to talk about teaching moves.
3) Approximations of practice.. These rehearsals of practice provide teachers an opportunity to try out their new learning in a low stakes environment with immediate feedback.
- Schwartz, D. L., Bransford, J. D., Sears, D., & others. (2005). Efficiency and innovation in transfer. Transfer of Learning from a Modern Multidisciplinary Perspective, 1–51.
- Shulman, L. S. (1998). Theory, practice, and the education of professionals. The Elementary School Journal, 98(5), 511–526.
- Grossman, P. L., Smagorinsky, P., & Valencia, S. (1999). Appropriating tools for teaching English: A theoretical framework for research on learning to teach. American Journal of Education, 108(1), 1–29.